The most used species in bonsai cultivation are the Malus evereste, sieboldii and the Malus halliana.

The most used species in bonsai cultivation are the Malus evereste, sieboldii and the Malus halliana.

The second has a characteristic mottled bark, rather stiff branches of purplish color and blooms in spring at the ends of the branches; among its various characteristics, it is certainly its fine branching that makes it ideal as a bonsai.

The third, the Malus halliana, since ancient times in China was particularly loved as a flowering tree: it too has a fine branch and has a particular smooth and gray bark.

One of the major advantages of these species for bonsai training is the rapid growth that allows them to obtain good specimens in a few years. The styles that are most suited to you are the informal or inclined upright.

EXPOSURE
Like all fruit trees it needs a lot of light to give rise to flowering and fruiting. It is exposed, therefore, in full sun throughout the year, naturally excluding the hottest summer months, when it is advisable to repair it under a shading net in order to avoid leaf burns. Protection is also useful in winter in periods of severe frost.

WATERING
It loves water in abundance, especially after flowering, when the fruit is forming: at this stage it may be necessary to water even 2-3 times a day. Generally, throughout the growing season, the administrations should be daily. During flowering, we must be very careful not to wet the flowers directly or they will not bear fruit. The leaves should also be sprayed periodically, as they are easily subject to mold.

GROUND
As for the compound to be used, it is recommended to mix 60% of akadama, 20% of ready soil and 20% of river sand.

POTTING
The same vigor that characterizes the aerial part of this plant is obviously also found in the root system. This makes it necessary to transplant the young specimens every year, and the more mature ones every two. The periods in which to intervene are the beginning of autumn or spring, before the vegetative awakening: in the first case, the following year you can enjoy the flowering, while repotting in spring for that year you will have to give up the fruits.

PRUNING
During the period of development the new branches are shortened, while in the phase of dormancy we dedicate ourselves to the formation of the silhouette, pruning at two or three knots. As with all fruit plants, the primary purpose is to get the flower buds. These develop from mid-June to mid-July on the tops of the short branches of the previous year. The branches that remain short form a group of leaves on the top, which will become the flowering buds for the following year. So, if you want to get the flowers, it is essential to have many short branches, so you will work with pruning only on long shoots. It is better to avoid too drastic pruning because, in this case, flowering buds are not formed and the following year flowering does not occur. To obviate this inconvenience, guiding branches, called "sacrifices", can be lengthened. Concentrating its vigor on these branches, the tree develops a large number of short twigs that will favor the formation of flowering buds. After the formation of these buds, in June, too long branches must be shortened, leaving four or more leaves. The shoots of the second vegetation will grow stunted, but the following spring they will be loaded with flowers.

STAPLE
If the tree produces fruit every year, the strong branches will tend to become more and more vigorous, while the weak, increasingly stunted ones. To avoid this inconvenience and to balance the vigor on the whole tree, it is important to intervene with the defoliation in order to stop the growth energy of the stronger parts. The branches of the apex and the younger ones are defoliated, in order to increase the thin branching. In response, the old branches immediately produce flowering buds. It is good to keep in mind that to obtain good results from this operation, the necessary precautions must be taken: make sure that the tree is in good health and provide, in the two months prior to defoliation, abundant fertilization of the specimen, avoiding the use of fertilizers with high Nitrogen content which would cause excessive swelling of new leaves; fertilization will not be necessary if the defoliation is only partial.

WINDING
In order for the tree to ripen the fruit, while maintaining its vigor, action is taken with the wrapping of the new branches. Between the end of May and the beginning of June, before they lignify, the new branches are lowered with the thread: in this way growth is braked and the development of a greater number of short twigs is encouraged. We recommend using copper-plated aluminum wire, to be removed about a month after its application.

FERTILIZER
At the end of flowering, after pruning, give Bonsan Stimulating Fertilizer combined with Bonsan Organic Liquid Fertilizer 3 times at 8-10 day intervals. This fertilization can be replaced by a administration of Bonsan Stimulating Fertilizer plus Bonsan Hanagokoro Solid Organic Fertilizer for 2 times every 15-20 days. In other periods use the Bonsan Liquid Organic Fertilizer every 15 days until October, or Bonsan Hanagokoro Solid Organic Fertilizer every 15-25 days, excluding the period of July and August. Twice a year (in autumn and at the end of winter) administer Bonsan Hanagokoro Solid Organic Fertilizer; 3-4 times a year it is also advisable to intervene with Bonsan Mineral Healing Solution. To stimulate rooting, use Organic Mineral Fluid Fertilizer with B Bonsan vitamins instead of the Bonsan Organic Liquid Fertilizer.

CARE
Bacteria, fungi and insects are common problems for apple trees. We recommend a monthly preventive treatment suitable for fruit trees. In case of tumor deformation on the roots, completely cut off the infected part and treat with nematocide.

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